The first phase (épuration sauvage) consisted of popular convictions, summary executions, and the shaving of women's heads. Albert Luykx fled to the Republic of Ireland in 1948 and became an Irish citizen in 1954. Hey Friend, Before You Go.. On 15 December 1961, Eichmann was sentenced to death and then executed on 1 June 1962. Hot The Nazis also used savage reprisals to discourage resistance. At the beginning of the process, many acts of violence against Volksdeutsche took place. _g1 = document.getElementById('g1-logo-inverted-source'); Feb 16, 2016 - Explore Kenneth Magnuson's board "WW II Collaborators", followed by 268 people on Pinterest. By decree 16/1945 Sb., special tribunals were started. "Τσάμηδες - Τσαμουριά. Pierre Laval was however, executed after his trial. Ioannis Rallis, the third collaborationist prime minister, was tried on a treason charge; the court sentenced him to life imprisonment. He was accused of the murder of Peter Balazs, an 18-year-old Jewish man, in Budapest in November 1944, while serving in the Hungarian Army. Indeed, in many cases the same people who had collaborated with the Germans and staffed the post-war security establishment persecuted leftist former Resistance members. The main motives were: revenge for those murdered, especially those murdered on ethnic grounds in the Holocaust (principally among Jews, Poles, and Russians); a desire after the war to see those responsible face justice, and be categorised as criminals by a court of law (See Nuremberg Trials); a means of ensuring that criminal acts done were brought to light and placed on the official record, with evidence, so that they could never be disproven (some of the acts being so unthinkable that denial was plausible); widespread sense that genocide of whole communities and cultures on such a scale was intolerable and must not be left unprosecuted even despite the inadequacy of existing laws; and fear that a "Nazi underground" of some kind existed, such as the mythical ODESSA, which could allow the enemy to somehow regroup for their proclaimed Fourth Reich. Your email address will not be published. Untrustworthy were considered German and Hungarian nationals, and people who were active in destruction of the Czechoslovak state and its democratic government, supported Nazi occupation by any means, or were members of organisations considered fascist or collaborator. However, many suspected war criminals were also given amnesty, and some reached high positions in post-war administrations (e.g. Trending In some colonial or occupation conflicts, soldiers of native origin were seen as collaborationists. [8], John Hickman identifies thirteen reasons why occupied populations might hold collaborators in contempt.[12]. Privacy Policy. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of the Terms and Conditions, Douglas Bader, the double-amputee flying ace of the Battle of Britain, Read an exclusive extract of The SS Officer's Armchair, Listen to Not What You Thought You Knew S2, The Caribbean, Indian and African RAF pilots of WW2, 'The Harlem Hellfighters': WW1's African-American regiment, Sir Keith Park: Battle of Britain's 'Defender of London'. The last two were both convicted for their roles in the July 1942 Rafle du Vel' d'Hiv, or Vel' d'Hiv Roundup). The property that belonged to Germans, German companies and German states, was confiscated by the Polish state along with many other properties in Communist Poland. By the same decree, property of people of German and Hungarian nationality, who could prove they were anti-Nazi, could be returned to them. Hungary applied for the extradition of Charles Zentai from Australia. Yes, 39 people got the death penalty. [28] Authorities of the Palestinian territories launched an investigation into the case and arrested the perpetrators. It is probably happening now in Iraq, and Afghanistan, and everywhere else where people were oppresed, and now think thy are free again. Immediately after the liberation of Czechoslovakia by Soviet and American armies, in an atmosphere of chaos, wild chases began. The humiliating scenes often took place in front of jeering crowds as you can see in the photographs below. It is impossible to forget Robert Capa's fallen-Madonna image of a shaven-headed young woman, cradling her baby, implicitly the result of a relationship with a German soldier. A fair number of collaborationists joined the OAS terrorist movement during the Algerian War (1954–62). French female collaborator punished by having her head shaved to publicly mark her, 1944. These people's courts had right to sentence to long term imprisonment, life sentence or death. Many such unfortunate Soviet citizens were persecuted upon their repatriation to the Soviet Union. Property of traitors, and enemies of the republic was confiscated, regardless of nationality or citizenship. _g1.setAttribute('src', _g1.getAttribute('data-src') ); Mostly they will then be subject to a new form of oppression, but hopefully one that they themselves more or less chose. Some of the more prominent officers were executed, while the rank-and-file were given prison terms; some of them were given the option of doing time in Indochina (1946–54) with the Foreign Legion instead of prison. General Georgios Tsolakoglou, the first collaborationist prime minister, was tried by the Greek Special Collaborators Court in 1945 and sentenced to death, but his penalty, like most death sentences, was commuted to life imprisonment. He died in prison on 7 November 2005 at the age of 84.[14]. Actions against Nazi collaborators in Czechoslovakia, real or alleged, had two significant forms, by judiciary or by mob action. In occupied Poland the status of Volksdeutsche had many privileges but one big disadvantage: Volksdeutsche were conscripted into the German Army. In the General Government there were ~120,000 Volksdeutsche. In general, after a short trial, if they were not executed, Nazi collaborators were imprisoned in Gulag forced labour camps. The Nuremberg Trial in Germany judged only the highest German Nazi authorities, and each country prosecuted and sentenced their own collaborationists. Similarly, Dietrich Boenhoffer's Confessing Church represented a significant form of Christian opposition to the Nazi government. Required fields are marked *. Many of the convicted were later granted amnesty under the Fourth Republic (1946–1954), while some prominent civil servants, such as Maurice Papon, escaped prosecution altogether and succeeded in holding important positions even under Charles de Gaulle and the Fifth Republic (1958 and afterward).

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