The scalloped hammerhead (S. lewini) and Carolina hammerhead are indistinguishable in external appearance. You can find out about more incredible animals by visiting the following related pages: News and facts about animals, natural history and science. The skin of a shark is covered in dermal denticles(tooth like structures) and on the Great Hammerhead, there are ridges on the crowns of these denticles that help lead scented water to its nares (nostrils). It is found all along the rim of the Indian Ocean, and in the Pacific Ocean from the Ryukyu Islands to Australia, New Caledonia, and French Polynesia, and from southern Baja California to Peru. The anterior margin of the head is more recurved in juveniles in striking contrast to the nearly straight margin seen in adults of the same species.
The regular litter size is in between 10 to 40.  At Rangiroa Atoll, great hammerheads prey opportunistically on grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) that have exhausted themselves pursuing mates. , The great hammerhead shark is an active predator with a varied diet, known prey of the great hammerhead include invertebrates such as crabs, lobsters, squid, and octopus, bony fishes such as tarpon, sardines, sea catfishes, toadfish, porgies, grunts, jacks, croakers, groupers, flatfishes, boxfishes, and porcupine fishes, and smaller sharks such as smoothhounds. The great hammerhead shark eats a wide range of prey, from bony fish and smaller shark species to squid and crabs. Not only that, but the aforementioned ampullae of Lorenzini serves as an eletrosensor that can detect the stingray’s electrical pulse. The weight of the female was due to her being pregnant with 55 near-natal pups. The 5 smaller species (S. tudes, S. corona, S. media, S. tiburo and E. blochii) are unlikely to be confused with the 4 larger species. We are open!  The gestation period is 11 months. Humans treasure the fins of these sharks, but they also consume fresh, dried salted, fresh-frozen, and smoked
The ray thus incapacitated, the shark once again used its head to pin it to the bottom and pivoted to take the ray in its jaws head-first. McComb, D.M., Tricas, T.C., and S.M. Thorny Devil Facts, Pictures, Information & Video For Kids And Adults, Beluga Whale Facts: Discover An Amazing Arctic Marine Mammal, List Of Prehistoric Animals That Are Not Dinosaurs, Cretaceous Period Dinosaurs List With Pictures & Facts: Discover The Dinosaurs That Lived In The Cretaceous Period, Scary Animals List With Pictures & Facts Plus FREE Printable Halloween Animal Quiz, Mosasaur Facts, Pictures & Information: Get The Lowdown On A Fearsome Prehistoric Marine Reptile, American Bison Facts, Pictures & Information: Discover The National Mammal of the United States, The Forest Biome Facts, Pictures & In-Depth Information, The Chaparral Biome Facts, Pictures & In-Depth Information. The great hammerhead shark can be found in most tropical oceans, in the Red Sea and the Mediterranean. Pelvic fins are large with a prominent leading edge and a recurved rear margin. respectively.  Yellow jacks (Carangoides bartholomaei) have been seen rubbing themselves against the hammerhead's flanks, possibly to rid themselves of parasites. Swahili: Papa mbingusi, Great hammerheads are fished both commercially and recreationally and are highly valued for their large fins in the Asian fin trade. , CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, International Union for Conservation of Nature, International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, "A Phylogenetic Supertree of the Hammerhead Sharks (Carcharhiniformes: Sphyrnidae)", "Record Hammerhead Pregnant With 55 Pups", "A review of shark agonistic displays: comparison of display features and implications for shark–human interactions". Lemon Shark Facts: Description, Behavior, Conservation, Blue Shark Facts: Size, Habitat, Reproduction, 10 Facts About Whale Sharks, the Largest Shark Species, ISAF Statistics on Attacking Species of Shark, Why the Hammerhead Shark's Head is In the Shape It's In, Hammerhead Shark Study Shows Cascade of Evolution Affected Size, Head Shape, M.S., Resource Administration and Management, University of New Hampshire, B.S., Natural Resources, Cornell University. The great hammerhead is considered a highly migratory species within Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (FAO 1994). Marine Fishes of Florida 2016: 37-38. There are approximately 10 related species of hammerheads throughout tropical and temperate regions including the bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), and smooth hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena).  Schools of pilot fish (Naucrates ductor) sometimes accompany the great hammerhead. During this time, hammerheads were responsible for 17 non-fatal, unprovoked attacks and 20 fatal, provoked attacks. ActiveWild.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for website owners to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon stores. The Great Hammerhead has the second most health in the XL Sharks category. The gestation period for a female shark is about 11 months, and 6-42 pups are born live. To assist with the birth, their cephalofoils are more rounded and softer than adults’, hardening as the pups get older. and C.H.
This habit is called rolled swimming, which is generally used while travelling large distances in the open ocean. The great hammerhead is dusky brown to light gray on the dorsal surface, fading to a cream-colored underside, with an asymmetrical caudal fin. The banning of shark finning by countries and supranational entities such as United States, Australia, and the European Union, and international regulatory bodies such as the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), should reduce fishing pressure on the great hammerhead. The most well known factor about them would undoubtedly have to deal with their namesake. During mating, the male transfers sperm to the female via his claspers. The great hammerhead was originally described as Zygaena mokarran by German naturalist Eduard Rüppell in 1837, however he changed this name to the currently valid Sphyrna mokarran later that same year. They undertake seasonal migrations to cooler waters in the summer. The rear margins of the pelvic fins are concave and falcate in shape, not seen in scalloped hammerhead (S. lewini). It is Endangered in the northwestern Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, where though it is a non-targeted species, populations have dropped 50% since the 1990s due to bycatch. Predators
Enhanced visual fields in hammerhead sharks. It is also Endangered in the southwestern Indian Ocean, where large numbers of longline vessels operate illegally along the coasts for hammerheads and the giant guitarfish (Rhynchobatus djiddensis).  As of 2011, the International Shark Attack File lists 34 bites, 17 of them unprovoked and none fatal, attributable to hammerhead sharks of the genus Sphyrna. Capable of reaching up to 20 feet in length, an adult great hammerhead can be a thousand pounds in weight. Great hammerhead pups are sometimes eaten by larger sharks such as the bull shark (Carcarhinus leucas). Furthermore, the wide snout is lined with sensory organs called ampullae of Lorenzini.  However, there have been reports of great hammerheads approaching divers closely and even charging them when they first enter the water. Click on the photo below to discover this week’s animal! The hammerhead’s skin is gray-brown, fading to white on the underside, and is covered in small tooth-like bumps called dermal denticles. Jennifer Kennedy, M.S., is an environmental educator specializing in marine life. Expected life span of the species is 20-30 years of age. These sharks enjoy the tastes of various animals such as other sharks, squids, crabs, jacks, herrings, tarpon, sardines, boxfish, toadfish, sea catfish, groupers, and of course their absolute favorite dish, rays. Great hammerheads are the largest of all hammerhead species. From Great Hammerhead Shark To Types Of Sharks. Great hammerheads are active predators, preying upon a wide variety of marine organisms, from invertebrates to bony fishes and sharks. , The average minimum great hammerhead measures up to 3.5 m (11 ft) long and weighs over 230 kg (510 lb) while the average maximum measures up to 4.6 m (15 ft) long. Join the thousands of Active Wild subscribers who receive free wildlife and science news & info direct to their inboxes! They can reach a maximum length of 18-20 feet (Compagno et al., 2005). It is believed that the females reach maturity once they have reach 8-10 ft (2.5-3 m) in length, and the males are mature at 7-9 ft (2.2-2.7 m). A small percentage of the population, mostly or all females, are much larger. English language common names include great hammerhead, squat-headed hammerhead shark (Denham, et al. (It’s completely free, you can unsubscribe at any time, and we’ll never share your details.). It is found all along the rim of the Indian Ocean, and in the Pacific Ocean from the Ryukyu Islands to Australia, New Caledonia, and French Polynesia, and from southern Baja California to Peru.
 However, for many years the valid scientific name for the great hammerhead was thought to be Sphyrna tudes, which was coined in 1822 by Achille Valenciennes. The great hammerhead catch rate in Indian Ocean has declined 73% from 1978 to 2003, though it is yet undetermined whether these represent localized or widespread depletion. , With its large size and cutting teeth, the great hammerhead could seriously injure a human and caution should be exercised around them. Biology of three hammerhead sharks (Eusphyra blochii, Sphyrna mokarran and S. lewini) form Northern Australia.
Hopefully after reading this article you’ll help raise awareness of the plight of the great hammerhead shark by telling other people and spreading the word. Polish: Glowomlot olbrzymi  The heaviest known great hammerhead is a 4.4 m (14 ft) long, 580 kg (1,280 lb) female caught off Boca Grande, Florida in 2006. Great hammerheads primarily hunt at dawn or dusk, swinging their heads in broad angles over the sea floor so as to pick up the electrical signatures of stingrays buried in the sand, via numerous electroreceptory located on the underside of the cephalofoil.  The great hammerhead is also taken unintentionally as bycatch and suffers very high mortality, over 90% for fisheries in the northwest Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico.
(‘Latitude’ is how far north or south something is.  The typical lifespan of this species is 20–30 years; the record Boca Grande female was estimated to be 40–50 years old.
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