Image taken from Moby’s official Youth channel. Bellstedt, Megan. MDMA, also known as Ecstasy or Molly, became the recreational drug of choice. Some ravers report that they try to take this philosophy of good vibes and apply it to the world outside raves (Wilson 2006). Culture.” What Matters? No longer an inferior subculture, EDM has become one of the world’s most popular music genres and a lucrative money-making opportunity for many companies. Traces the history of the connection between MDMA and EDM music, and the spirituality connected with drug usage in music subcultures. In the case of rave culture, commodification is an ever present reminder of how far EDM and raves have traveled from their underground beginnings. As a “90’s kid” my Friday nights were spent watching the MuchMusic countdown, and afterwards, Electric Circus. Jenkins, P. Nash. Images provided by Tristan in a personal communication with permission to use for this blog. By the late 1990s, electronic music and raves had spread worldwide. The massive scale of festivals today: EDC Las Vegas 2016. Pioneers like Frankie Knuckles built upon the rhythmic, DJ-centered music of disco, but used drum machines and 4/4 time to create a unique, electronic sound with deep bass lines that immediately gained popularity, especially among the gay community in Chicago. Home to eclectic and diffuse genres like house, trance, and techno, the rave scene evolved into a subculture bound together with a distinctive ethos, a unique fashion sensibility, and an adventurous spirit to drug use, particularly ecstasy. More “authentic” fans aim to be more original in both their appearance and music preferences, listening to DJs viewed as less commercial, mainstream, or sell-out. Odyssey, New York. These new developments pushed the boundaries of house music so much that it was now considered “dance,” a precursor to EDM. An advertisement for a navy blue hooded dress by Snug clothing, a Canadian brand specializing in rave inspired clothing. The implications of this are that EDM contains subgenres that appeal to a very wide audience, and perhaps the music fans that would have been attracted to punk or metal in the past are bringing that same intensity and passion to EDM events as it has risen in popularity among young people over the last decade. An article, titled Rave Review in Vogue 1997, describes the role that rave culture played in the inspiration for the designs of Marc Jacobs and other luxury fashion designers on the runway (Greeven 114). EDM’s a sound America has latched on to, but once people start going left and right of that scene, they’re going to find their art departments, their Loco Dices and their Sven Väths – and that’s a really good place to be.” While the over-saturation of EDM may seem like a death toll to some, Cox explains that with a more worldwide acceptance of mainstream EDM, listeners will have greater opportunities to discover the classic house tastemakers and legends, expand their musical knowledge and preferences, and further enter into the positivity of EDM culture. 2009. In the late 1980s, a subculture emerged that sent shockwaves throughout Thatcherite Britain and beyond, and was the seed from which grew a multi-billion pound industry and the enduring alteration of the sound and aesthetic of popular music. Fatboy Slim, Crystal Method, and Prodigy all released platinum albums by the turn of the century. While everyone is accepted on some level, more casual fans like “EDM Bros” aren’t as interested in the history of the music, or knowing about underground DJs. 111– 116. 2017. Commodification is the act of transforming original and creative content into a commercialized product ready for mainstream consumption. Hip-hop/EDM crossover has been especially prevalent, bridging the gap between two of the most popular genres in music today, although EDM producers pull from many musical sources, including country, rock, reggae, and soul music. Lastly, the “Nothing Special” style, which was a direct transition from daywear to night, often just jeans and tee-shirts (Wilson 399). But if you’re purchasing clothes with the intention to participate in a subculture with different goals, I don’t think it matters *as* much where you purchase from. This figure shows the complete level of acceptance of rave culture into the mainstream nightlife industry. Ravers adopted looks that were cute and cuddly. The progressive house track has one of the most recognizable synth hooks in music, and samples Etta James’ 1962 gospel song “Something’s Got a Hold on Me.” The track topped every chart for weeks, was certified multi-platinum, and launched Avicii into superstardom. The tactile nature of the materials used in rave style clothing, directly resulted as a response to the types of drugs being taken at raves. The "Club Kids" — an infamous group of New York partiers — began to host raves at Limelight, which became the premier destination for electronic music in New York City in the early 1990s. Festivalgoers often attend in costume, and some perform “gloving” routines for mesmerized ravers. Ravers originally organized as a response to mainstream culture, but today,  tickets to modern EDM festivals now cost upwards of $400 and $10,000 for special VIP packages, with corporate sponsor advertisements displayed prominently. By then, college-age people in Europe and India were taking the drug to enhance rave parties, where thousands of people danced to loud techno music. Kandi are beaded bracelets that are exchanged at raves and festivals; the more kandi one has at events means the more raves one has attended. The vast majority of those wishing to participate in this subculture and attend these events wholeheartedly believe in and practice PLUR when interacting with others, both at music events and in their daily lives. Other similar brands included Mod Robes, JNCO, Clobbers and Snug. While often held in abandoned urban spaces, raves that took advantage of open rural land also became de rigueur. New forms of raves are taking place all over Toronto, in the forms of festivals and themed club nights with extended last-call times. “Degeneration X: The Artifacts and Lexicon of the Rave. According to a 2002 issue of the Virginia Law Review, “statements by legislators, prosecutors, and DEA agents indicate that the government equates raves with drug use” (Dore 2002). I am surprised at the coat’s generous sizing, as often I fit into a ladies large, but given that the lap at the opening fastens either way, the coat may be read as unisex. Those who wore them were referred to as "kandi kids.". The PLUR philosophy stands in resistance even to other subcultures, embracing positivity through escapism, comfort and pleasure. Electronic Dance Music’s Love Affair With Ecstasy: A History. This form of resistance stands in contrast to subcultures like punk, where issues of class, gender and race manifest into aggression and confrontation. Huffington Post, New York. Pacifiers are also sometimes worn and used, as they alleviate the teeth grinding associated with ecstasy use (Dore 2002). Photo taken by Alysia Myette. The under collar and lining are made of hot pink satin. 2016. The brand label is the original Groggy logo, adjacent to a size tag reading “small” inside the garment’s collar. The Groggy faux fur coat displayed on a Judy. Link: I bought the coat after seeing it listed in a Facebook buy and sell group for vintage clothing. The model is wearing an orange fur vest and wide legged pants. Images provided by Rhia in a personal communication with permission to use for this blog. While many still gather there to enjoy house and dance music in a welcoming and like-minded crowd and indulge in psychoactive drugs in the same way as their predecessors, there is some debate on whether the mainstream commercial nature of these events constitutes a “rave,” as it departs from the underground nature of EDM’s house music origins (Marcus 2017). This philosophy, and doctrine of rave attendees, upholds the social values within the subculture, with the use of high-technology as a means to gain pleasure and empowerment as well as to seek and experience pleasure (Wilson 384).

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