Spykman thought that it was in the American interests to leave Germany strong after World War II to be able to counter Russia's power. Strategically, there was no difference between Germany dominating all the way to the Ural or Russia controlling all the way to Germany, and as both scenarios were equally threatening to the US. His work on geopolitics and geostrategy led him to be to known as the "godfather of containment.
In 1925, he came to Yale University, where he was an assistant professor of international relations. The Rimland (Mackinder's "Inner or Marginal Crescent") sections: While Spykman accepts the first two as defined, he rejects the simple grouping the Asian countries into one "monsoon land." The aim of this short paper has been to stimulate a fresh reading of Spykman’s early writings on geopolitics, and especially of his 1938-1939 articles. As the amphibious buffer zone between the land powers and sea powers, it must defend itself from both sides, the cause of its fundamental security problems. Other than the two continents, there are offshore islands of significance are Britain, Japan and the New World, buffered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The Social Background of Asiatic Nationalism, International Relations from the Point of View of Teaching, in: Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of Teachers of International Law and Related Subjects, Washington 1930, Methods of Approach to the Study of International Relations, in: Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of Teachers of International Law and Related Subjects, Washington 1933. with A. Spykman's vision is at the base of the " containment politics" put into effect by the United States in its relation/position to the Soviet Union during the post-World War II period. Maritime mobility opened up the possibility of a new geopolitical structure: the overseas empire. He died of cancer on 26 June 1943, at the age of 49, in New Haven, Connecticut. He was married to the children's novelist E. C. Spykman. The significant of such facts changes with every shift in the means of communication, in routes of communication, in the technique of war, and in the centers of world power, and the full meaning of a given location can be obtained only by considering the specific area in relations to two systems of reference: a geographic system of reference from which we derive the facts of location, and a historical system of reference by which we evaluate those facts.". In his writings on geography and foreign policy, Spykman was somewhat of a geographical determinist. [1] He held that position until 1940, when he became ill and relinquished it. Nicholas John Spykman (pronounced "Speak-man", 13 October 1893 – 26 June 1943) was an American political scientist who was one of the founders of the classical realist school in American foreign policy, transmitting Eastern European political thought to the United States. Again, Spykman differs from Mackinder, who sees Eurasian wars as historically pitting the Heartland against the sea powers for control of the rimland, establishing a land power-sea power opposition.

A. Rollins, Geographic Objectives in Foreign Policy, II. The US was fighting a war against Germany to prevent Europe's conquest, and it would not make sense to federalize or to unify Europe after a war that had been fought to preserve balance. Spykman’s conception of the Rimland bears greater resemblance to Alfred Thayer Mahan ‘s “debated and debatable zone” than to Mackinder’s inner or marginal crescent. [3] He then was an instructor in political science and sociology there from 1923 to 1925. Re-thinking Nicholas J. Spykman: from historical sociology to balance of power. Spykman disagrees with Mackinder's famous dictum: Therefore, British, Russian, and US power would play the key roles in controlling the European litoral and there the essential power relations of the world. The exploration of the entire world means that the foreign policy of any nation will affect more than its immediate neighbors; it will affect the alignment of nations throughout the world's regions. Spykman states that historically, battles have pitted either Britain and Rimland allies against Russia and its Rimland allies or Britain and Russia together against a dominating Rimland power. Spykman published America’s Strategy in World Politics, in which he set forth a theory that combined those of Mackinder and leading naval theorist Alfred Thayer Mahan. Indeed, the Soviet's raw materials were largely located to the West of the Ural Mountains as well. He explained his geostrategy and argued that the balance of power in Eurasia directly affected US security.
A Sterling Professor of International Relations, teaching as part of the Institute for International Studies at Yale University, one of his prime concerns was making his students geographicallyliterate, as geopolitics was impossible without geogra… Frontiers, Security, and International Organization, This page was last edited on 16 September 2020, at 04:00. Spykman predicted that Japan would lose the Pacific War and that China and Russia would remain to struggle against each other over boundaries. [1] The subject of his dissertation, which he subsequently revised for publication, was Georg Simmel. There are two offshore continents flanking Eurasia: Africa and Australia. Spykman published two books on foreign policy. Spykman sees that its importance to be the reason that the Rimland will be crucial to containing the Heartland, but Mackinder had believed that the Outer or Insular Crescent would be the most important factor in containing the Heartland. If they wish to survive, they must be willing to go to war to preserve a balance against the growing, "Nations which renounce the power struggle and deliberately choose impotence will cease to influence international relations either for evil or good. States cannot afford to wait passively for the happy time when a miraculously achieved balance of power will bring peace and security. However, his contribution to geopolitical analysis has certainly not been limited Spykman's conception of the Rimland bears greater resemblance to Alfred Thayer Mahan's "debated and debatable zone" than to Mackinder's Inner or Marginal Crescent. He also forecast the rise of China, becoming the dominant power in Asia and that the US would thus take responsibility for Japan's defense.


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